Pareto, Vilfredo Trattato

"Revolutions come about through accumulations in the higher strata of society -either because of a slowing-down in class circulation, or from other causes--of decadent elements no longer possessing the residues suitable for keeping them in power, and shrinking from the use of force; while meantime in the lower strata of society elements of superior quality are coming to the fore, possessing residues suitable for exercising the functions of government and willing enough to use force. para 2057

ashley and ornstein "Pareto points out that revolutions tend to occur more as the result of a governing elite's inability and lack of will to move aggressively against its enemies than as the result of a popular uprising expressing the will of the people." pg 319


1. A structural nonvoluntarist perspective

2. Systematic reference to international structures and world historical developments.

3. conceive of states as administrative and coercive organizations, organizations that are potentially autonomous from socioeconomic interests and structures. pg 14

Big mistake with purposive image of revolutions is it strongly suggests that societal order rests upon a consensus of the majority.

World capitalist system may not actually determine national economic development but has certainly influenced pg 20

also the international system of competing states has shaped the dynamics and uneven course.

1. state administrative efficiency

2. political capacities for mass mobilization

3. national geographic position

4. military situation

2 different sorts of transnational contexts are relevant:

1. structures of the world capitalist system

2. changes and transmissions in "world time" pg 23

"Modern social revolutions have happened only in countries situated in disadvantaged positions within international arenas." pg23
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