Brinton, Crane. The Anatomy of Revolution, Prentice Hall, 1965.

Compared Britain, France, Russia, America

"Thus we see that certain economic grievances - usually not in the form of economic distress, but rather a feeling on the part of some of the chief enterprising groups that their opportunities for getting on in this world are unduly limited by political arrangements - would seem to be one of the symptoms of revolution." pg 34

"This conceptual scheme of the social equilibrium is probably in the long run the most useful for the sociologist of revolutions." pg 16

one key is the existing government attempted to collect monies from people who refused to pay" pg 78

contends revolution must be combination of circumstance and plot

"Actually, we must reject both extremes, for they are nonsense, and hold that revolutions do grow from seeds sown by men who want change, and that these men do do a lot of skillful gardening; but rather in soil and in a climate propitious to their work; and that the final fruits represent a collaboration between men and nature." pg 86

" In each revolution there is a point, or several points, where constituted authority is challenged by the illegal acts of revolutionists. In such instances, the routine response of any authority is to have recourse to force, police or military. Our authorities made such a response, but in each case with a striking lack of success." pg 86

"No government has ever fallen before attackers until it has lost control over its armed forces or lost the ability to use them effectively" pg 89

""We may say then that in all our revolutions there is a tendency for power to go from Right to Center to Left..."pg 123

"Their fewness is indeed one of the great sources of the extremists' strength. Great numbers are almost as unwieldy in politics as on the battlefield."pg 154 Once in power extremists have a few months or perhaps a year where they can do anything they like as no one dares to challenge them. Reign of Terror


1. all societies on the upgrade economically and the revolutionary movements seem to originate in the discontents of not un prosperous people who feel restraint, cramp, annoyance, rather than downright crushing oppression.

2. definite and very bitter class antagonisms

3. transfer of allegiance of the intellectuals

4. government machinery clearly inefficient, at least partly because new conditions laid an intolerable strain on governmental machinery adapted to simpler, more primitive, conditions.

5. many individuals of the old ruling class came to distrust themselves, or lose faith in the traditions and habits of their class--and becomes politically inept. pg 251-2

Reinhart Bendix. Nation-Building and Citizenship. New York: Wiley, 1964.

Tilly, Charles. From Mobilization to Revolution. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1978.

Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848. New York, Mentor, 1962. suspicious of "theories which overstress the voluntaristic or subjective elements"

Johnson, Chalmers. Revolutionary Change. Bsoton, Little, Brown,1966. widespread personal disorientation.

Gurr, Ted. "A Causal Model of Civil Strife: A comparative Analysis Using New Indices." American Political Science Review 27 (1968: 1104-24. "the primary causal sequence in political violence is first the development of discontent, second the politicization of that discontent, and finally its actualization in violent action against political objects and actors" Gurr Why Men Rebel pg 12-13. Discusses the broader range of political violence.
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